What is Criminology?
Criminology can be defined as studying crime in detail and it is also known as the study of interexchange activity between behavioral and social science. This subject is pursued to help the legal system. Here the role of sociologists, psychologists, philosophers, comes into the picture. Criminology means allegation which is derived from the Latin word “crimen”. Criminology can also be explained as a brief study about the legal implications and judicial system covering all the criminal sections under the lawful system. Apart from sociologists, scientists also play a very important role when it comes to criminology.
The job of the criminologist is to look into every side of the case assigned to them and looks into the broader side of the story. There are certain areas wherein criminologist go through the details in particular which includes the following-
- How many times a crime has occurred?
- What is the location of the crime?
- Reason for crime to take place.
- What type of crime has taken place?
- Results of a crime taking place.
- Impact on the public for the crime took place.
- What are the reactions of the government to it?
- What is the reaction of an individual related to the case?
- Society reaction to the case taken place.
Criminologists are the people who work while researching for every aspect that is possible to find a criminal. There is private investigator as well who are considered to be very expert on their field who also pursue many years of experiences as well in their work. Inquiry is also taken place with the help of the forensic research team. Criminology is just not about solving the case but noticing all the patterns, methods, and precautions taken while committing a crime.
What are the skills required to pursue criminology?
There are certain skills which an individual needs to have if they want to take criminology as their career option. Some of the skills required are listed below-
- Good observation power
- Proper understanding of the situation around them.
- Should be very calm and composed.
- Should be willing to work hard.
- Should be alert all the time as criminals are very smart
- Should be very sharp-eyed
- Committed to their duty and responsibilities.
Types of Criminal Offences-
There are different kinds of crimes which can take place but majorly all the types of crime can be divided into five main sections which include-
- A crime that affects personally
- Crime related to property.
- A crime that forces to commit suicide or leads to murder.
- A crime that involves money.
- Crime related to a sexual offense.
Now let us study them in details-
- Personally, affected Crime- This type of crime results in affecting the mental or physical health of the opposite person whom a criminal wants to harm. Under this section, it can be further divided into two main types which are Crime related to murder and other violent crimes as well. In some cases wherein harm is provided to a person physically then it can also lead to murder. And criminal is charged for third-degree violence. Certain violent crimes are considered to be very serious which includes-
- Physical assault
- Child abuse
- Domestic abuse
- Raping and then continue doing so.
2. Crimes related to Property- Crimes related to the property come into the picture when one individual interferes with the property discussion with another. Although this can also lead to physical or mental damage as well so that the person committing can enjoy the facility of the property he or she wanted to acquire. Many types of property crime include theft, robbery, shoplifting, etc.
3. A crime that leads to suicide- This type of crime includes those types of crime which are not completed yet and still in the process of getting completed. Under this category, more than one person is required to commit the crime. They form a conspiracy against the person they want to harm so that the person himself takes a very drastic step and commits suicide on their own. In some cases, a criminal can be punished and is given severe punishment but in certain cases, a criminal may not be found guilty and can be left without any punishment.
4. Crime involving money- This type of crime comes into the picture when a large amount of money is involved. It includes cybercrime as well. Under this stage all the financial crime is also included which involves money laundering, web theft, fraud, blackmailing, using the wrong means of saving tax well.
5. Crime related to sexual offense- This type of crime comes into the picture when an individual wants to sexually harass an opposite or same gender of their own. This circumstance can take place anywhere whether it can be at a workplace, at home, or even while traveling somewhere. Especially women are more unsafe when it comes to crimes related to a sexual offense. Therefore, they need to learn self-defense so that they can save themselves from any situation they suffer.
After a brief introduction about what exactly criminologist is let us study about criminologist course, fees, career and its scope in details-
Courses offered in Criminology-
- Bachelor of Science in Forensic studies-
Duration- 3 years
Eligibility criteria- An individual should pass class 12 with a science stream from a recognized board and should secure a minimum of 45% in his or her results.
2. Bachelor of Arts in Sociology
Duration- 3 years
Eligibility Criteria- An individual should clear class 12 from the Arts stream from a recognized board and should secure a minimum of 45% in his or her results.
3. Masters of Science in Forensic studies as well as in criminology-
Duration- 4 years
Eligibility Criteria- A candidate must complete their bachelor of science in Forensic studies or any other field similar to it from a recognized board or university and should secure a minimum of 50% in his or her results.
4. Masters of Arts in Sociology-
Duration- 2 years.
Eligibility Criteria- A candidate should complete their bachelor of arts in forensic studies or any other field similar to it from a recognized board or university and should secure a minimum of 50% in his or her results.
5. Masters of Science in Criminology-
Duration- 2 years
Eligibility Criteria- A candidate should complete their bachelor of science in forensic studies or any other field similar to it from a recognized board or university and should secure a minimum of 50% in his or her results.
6. Masters of Arts in Criminology and criminal justice-
Duration- 2 years
Eligibility criteria- A candidate should complete their bachelor of arts in sociology or any other field similar to it from a recognized board or university and should secure a minimum of 50% in his or her results.
7. Cybercrime diploma-
Duration- 1 year
Eligibility criteria- A candidate should pass class 12 in any stream from any recognized board and should secure a minimum of 45% in their results.
8. Criminal law diploma-
Duration- 1 year
Eligibility Criteria- A candidate should pass class 12 in any stream from any recognized board and should secure a minimum of 45% in their results.
9. Post-graduation diploma in Forensic Studies and Criminology-
Duration- 1 year
Eligibility Criteria- The candidate should complete their graduation.
Admission and Eligibility-
If a candidate wants to take admission in a criminology course, one must clear the class 12 examination in the science stream. One can also choose to apply in the CLAT examination to get admission to various law colleges. For getting admission to pursue a Bachelor of the arts degree program in criminology or cyber-crime, any candidate who has cleared class 12th in the Arts stream can also apply.
To get admissions for master’s courses like Masters in Arts one should complete their bachelor’s degree from a recognized university or board in the same field or any field related to it. The candidate can go through many entrance examinations as well to get admission in under-graduate or post-graduate courses as well. Some of the courses which a candidate can choose to go for are-
- TS LAWCET etc.
Some of the colleges offering criminology courses are listed below-
- Pune university
- University of Osmania
- University of Gujarat
- Madras University
- University of Bundelkhand
- University of Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha
- Management and technology institute of Vinayaka.
Scope of Criminology courses-
A career in criminology appears to be very in demand in India as well as abroad too. One who has completed a degree course in any of the subjects of their choice can be named a criminologist. Especially in India many of the detective agencies required professionals in criminology and their demand also increases day by day. In the field of criminology, there are a lot of good opportunities. The field of criminology has many roles offers to the candidates applying for it. They offer various opportunities to criminologists, scientists, research assistants, forensic scientists as well as investigators too.
Once anyone has completed the education in the required field one can opt for jobs in various departments such as-
- Private hospitals
- Medical department
- Forensic department
- Crime laboratories
- Forensic departments and many other options are also available.
Any individual can choose to be a professor in any recognized college or university or one can choose to become a professional in the legal judiciary as well. Some of the job profiles in the field of forensic jobs and criminologist includes the following-
- Crime investigators
- Private detectives
- FBI agents
- Forensic engineer
- Forensic surgeons
- Crime intelligence reporter
- Consumer advocate
- Drug policy advisor
- Environment protection advisor
- Crime scene analyst
- Coordinator for crime detection and many more.
PayScale and Salary-
Whether a government organization or a private organization the scope of a criminologist is everywhere. But the salary in the government organization tends to be fixed but salary in private companies usually varies from situation to situation. But in the end, the salary depends on one-on-one cases and the place where you choose to work with. The career emerges to be very bright whether you choose to work abroad as well as in India too. And along with a long time of experience in this field, one can also choose to open their private detective agency very soon.
If a candidate chooses their career as a criminologist, then they can expect a salary of INR 3 to 4 Lacs per annum. And as mentioned above, after gaining experience in this field a criminologist can attract a handsome amount of money in this field as well.
Some of the top sectors and institutions that are considered to be the recruiters in the field of criminology include the following-
- Government agencies who work against the crime
- State government
- Central government
- Investigation Bureaus
- Non- governmental organizations
- Agencies who work for human rights
- Private detective agencies
BSC in criminology-
It’s a full-time bachelor course with a course duration of 3 years in total. Eligibility to enroll for this course is to qualify class 12th in any stream.
The total course duration of a bachelor of science in criminology is a total of 3 years. This total of 3 years is divided into 3 parts which comprise of 1 year each. After completion of each year, an examination is conducted to decide whether a candidate should be promoted to the next level or not. An institute wherein a candidate has enrolled provides a good ambiance for quality learning. Criminology and forensic science aim to provide quality professionals capable of updating themselves and also highlight their key strengths with continuous learning as well.
Role of a Criminologist-
The role of a criminologist is to study the reason behind why a crime has taken place. They need to go through all the different areas and all the historic details behind the crime which has taken place. Criminologists also bring out ways where they can bring out new ways as well to reduce crime in society as well. This is only possible only when a professional criminologist sees a bigger picture of the crime which has taken place. This can make a job of a criminologist very exciting and unpredictable as well.
Criminologist also has to research and analyze every side of the story in detail. They also have to notice society’s reactions as well on the crime that occurred. They need to develop the theories of criminal behavior, what are their motives, and their thought process as well. They also need the help of the forensic department, research department as well as scientists as well.
They also have to go through the minute details as well. Criminologists combine all the physiological and sociological circumstances as well and work a little more with evidence files, including all the tests, testimony, and all the witness as well. All the footprints, blood spots or broken glass including any other material found in the place wherein crime has taken place can contribute to the assessment of the criminologist.
Any criminologists working on a particular crime scene should have a great ability to analyze the crime scene thoroughly. Taking Personal emotions into consideration while solving the case can never lead to the results. For example, a criminologist can never take into consideration gender discrimination such as male or female. A criminal can also be a relative of a criminologist therefore, cannot be biased towards the same.
Along with all the roles mentioned above, a criminologist needs to have strong communications as well. Be it verbal communication or written communication as well. They need to communicate well their thoughts and process as well to suspect the criminal and prove your ability as well.
Q. What subjects do you need for criminology?
Ans- Some of the subjects involved in criminology are cybercrime, cultural criminology, justice policies, restorative justice, and more.
Q. What are the basic qualification requirements to pursue criminology?
Ans- The student must have completed their 12th standard in the science stream and shall then apply for the CLAT exam to be able to pursue criminology.
Q. What are criminology job roles?
Ans- The job roles include investigator, law enforcement department, security administration professional, crime detection specialist, and more.
Choosing a career as a criminologist can be considered a very demanding career. Whether abroad or in India the scope of a criminologist is very high. Their demand across the sector is increasing day by day. Initially, the pay scale to choose this career may seem very low but with experience in this industry with the increasing time, the pay scale also increases.
The best part about being a criminologist is that the opportunities are available both in private as well as government organizations as well. Whether it is central government or state government everyone requires a criminologist. But as we know that everything has its disadvantages too. Any criminologist does not have a personal life. They need to be very active in whatever they do be it day or night. Criminologists cannot afford to miss any clue also whether it can be small or big, as there can be chances wherein any small clue can help to solve the case. As we read previously also there are many options available to pursue a criminology course and the minimum percentage required to qualify is also very low.
Therefore, before pursuing the course the candidate needs to go through the eligibility criteria in detail and then take admission into a particular college. This course can be defined as a very unique and different career option for anyone to pursue. One needs to be very attentive as well with good communication skills also so that any small information can be communicated to the people ahead of the criminologist and solve the case as soon as possible.